Ankara

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Ankara, Turkey’s capital and second largest city, lies at the heart of Anatolia. The city has a mean elevation of 938 meters (3,077 ft). The historical center of Ankara is situated upon a rocky hill, which rises 150 m (492 ft.) above the plain on the bank of Ankara Cayi, a tributary of the Sakarya (Sangarius) river. The city now extends to an area of approximately 20 km in radius with a population of well over 5 million. Climate in September is rather moderate, day time temperature range from 28 ℃ to 25 ℃ . This drops to 11℃ to 9℃ during night time. The probability of precipitation in early September 20 %.

Ankara, has been inhabited continuously from the 20th century B.C. onwards. The first settlers were Hittites, Hattusas their capital city is, some 200 km east of Ankara. This was followed by the Phrygians and Lydians. Gordion, Phrygia’s capital is only about 70 km southwest of Ankara, Pessinus another major Phrygian city is located slightly further away on the banks of Sakarya river. Ankara was conquered by Alexander the Great in 333 BC, who came from Gordion to Ankara and stayed in the city for a short period. Soon after, a Celtic race known as the Galatians made Ankara their capital city. The name Ankara comes from the word ‘Ancyra’, which means ‘anchor’.

The city was subsequently conquered by Augustus in 25 BC and passed under the control of the Roman Empire. Ankara being the capital of Roman Galatia has flourished during Roman times population increasing to 200 000. This however later declined in late Roman periods. The city was taken over by Seljuks in 1075 and then by Ottomans. The plains just north of the city (Cubuk) was the battle ground between Timur the Lame, Central Asian ruler and the Ottoman sultan Beyazit I. This has led to a period of crisis for the Ottoman Empire as the result was a major victory for Timur.

In Ottoman era, Ankara was not as glamorous as it was in Roman times. This has changed soon after the First World War when Ankara was made the headquarters of the resistance movement. This movement led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk against the Allied Forces which had occupied a greater part of Anatolia. Ankara soon made capital of modern republic. Ulus, historical district of Ankara, was the focal point of the city at that time, but this has moved first to south to Kızılay and Cankaya in 50’s and  60’s and then to the west in Eskisehir road in 90’s and 2000’s towards and beyond METU the city reaching her current size.

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